José Paulo L. Guadanucci (2014) Theraphosidae phylogeny: relationships of the ‘Ischnocolinae’ genera (Araneae, Mygalomorphae). Zoologica Scripta. Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014. DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12065 Резюме: The mygalomorph spider subfamily ‘Ischnocolinae’ was originally established as a group based on the presence of divided tarsal scopula. Later, the divided condition of the scopula was considered the plesiomorphic state, which could not support the monophyly of ‘Ischnocolinae’. In Raven 1985, the subfamily was considered paraphyletic, pending a phylogenetic analysis to reinvestigate monophyletic groups. This study comprises such a phylogenetic analysis, based on morphological data, that includes representatives of all genera currently included in ‘Ischnocolinae’ as well as representatives of all other nine Theraphosidae subfamilies (Thrigmopoeinae, Ornithoctoninae, Eumenophorinae, Stromatopelminae, Harpactirinae, Selenogyrinae, Theraphosinae, Aviculariinae and Selenocosmiinae). The family Theraphosidae is considered monophyletic and expanded to include three additional genera previously considered as possible Barychelidae, namely Brachionopus (as Harpactirinae), Trichopelma and Reichlingia (as Ischnocolinae sensu stricto) while ‘Ischnocolinae’ as previously defined does not appear as monophyletic. However, two monophyletic groups were defined as subfamilies to include some former ‘Ischnocolinae’ representatives. The first group includes Acanthopelma rufescens, Trichopelma nitidum, Reichlingia annae, Ischnocolus spp., Holothele rondoni, Holothele culebrae and Holothele aff culebrae and is hereby named as Ischnocolinae (sensu stricto). The other subgroup comprises Sickius longibulbi, Holothele incei, Holothele aff incei, Guyruita spp., Schismatothele lineata, Hemiercus modestus, Holothele colonica and Holothele sp., together established as Schismatothelinae subfam. nov. Several genera included in former ‘Ischnocolinae’ appear as monophyletic (Catumiri, Oligoxystre, Heterothele, Nesiergus, Chaetopelma, Ischnocolus, Guyruita and Plesiophrictus). However, the genera Holothele, Schismatothele and Hemiercus deserve more attention in order to evaluate their intrarelationships and inclusion of species.