Comments to systematics
As already mentioned earlier, systematics of family Theraphosidae is in constant change, modification and revision.
At present many authors are organizing studies and audits, results of which cause ambiguous opinions in leading scientists such as:
Volker von Wirth, Martin Huber (Germany), Rick West, Endrew Smith, Peter Kirk (Canada), Rogerio Bertani (Brazil), Fernando Perez-Miles (Uruguay), Suren Rafn (Danmark), Fabian Vol, Lionel Dabat (France), dr. Prentice (USA) etc.
However such studies, being published in official specialized arthropod editions, are taken as a base for compilation of systematic species lists, and consequently, tarantulas with changed names can be found on the market and in the literature.
So, in his work * Aussie dr. Robert Raven (Qeensland Museum) transfer genus Baccallbrapo to genus Phlogiellus (now it is removed and placed/incuded in Yamia), and also genus Chilocosmia, Phlogius and Selenopelma – synonymies of genus Selenocosmia, however such "cabinet" synonymies cause doubts because he had not studied taxonomic characters of the investigated taxa (types).
In 2000 Jan-Peter Rudloff (Germany) transfered species Tmesiphantes spinopalpus to genus Cyclosternum**.
In 2001 he also published work ***, in which he transferres Acаnthopelma to the family Barychelidae, however, afterwards has realized that species Acanthopelma annae, was described by Reichling in 1997 from Belize, didn’t belong to this taxon and after that Rudloff established a new monotypic genus – Reichlingia Rudloff, 2001, in which he included Reichlingia annae.
In 2002 dr. Gunther Schmidt (Germany) described two new species - Pamphobeteus petersi**** former known in the pet trade as Pamphobeteus sp. “Backfire” from Ecuador and Peru, and Pterinochilus leetzi from Zambia (this species was described from a
live specimen, which is absolutely nonsense for systematic science) *****
In the opinion of dr. Richard Gallon – this is only a color form of P. murinus, with more dark to black colouration of carapace.
In the same year same old dr. G. Schmidt together with entomologist М. Tesmoingt have described a new species Stenotarsus scissistylus from French Guiana (Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)******
This new taxon (genus and species) was taken from the synonyms of species Hapalopus guianensis. However this caused doubt regarding the placement of the previous species taxon Hapalopus, so this new taxon combination is also very doubtful.
Also the status of several species remains debatable, which were not discovered since the date of its description but were recently
Such, in particular, are following two species.
Yamia watasei Kishida, 1920 small size tarantula was described in 1920 by japanese arachnologiest K. Kishida from Taiwan (Formosa) and Orchid Island (Laniu, Botel Tobago and Kotosho) *******
Bonnet (1959), but then and R. Raven (1985), without any motivation have establishing this species as nomen dubium. Herewith Raven has not examined type material. Today the genus Yamia resurrected and includes 3 species.
Also interesting is a Chilean species Pachypelma oculatum (Nicolet, 1849) which is clearly identified by two typical round areas of urticating patches on abdomen. This tarantula was described by Nicolet in 1849 as Mygale oculata. It is also was established as a nomen dubium, in connection with loss of type series and extremely weak description, insufficient for final determination of status of the species. Nowadays this taxon is known as Euathlus vulpinus (Karsch, 1880),
However, in recent times more frequent discoveries of these tarantulas has required the determination of their taxonomic status (at present on personal mission of Volker von Wirth, he conducts the revision on Asiatic representatives of fauna of tarantulas of the World, in particular, the Neochilobrachys-Phlogiellus-Yamia-Ischnocollela genus complex).
On November 2003, amongst the large amount of specimens kept for a long time in collections of species Brachypelma vagans, exported from Mexico, german arachnologiest Jan-Peter Rudloff has selected and described a new species Brachypelma schroederi ********
At the same time other German arachnologist - Gunther Schmidt has described a new species - Brachypelma verdezi********* , having named its in honour of J-M Verdez (France). This species is well-known in the pet-trade under the name Brachypelma sp. "pallidum". Thereby, by the end of 2003 genus Brachypelma was enlarged with two new species.
At the end of 2003 Rogerio Bertani and C. Silva ********** described the male specimen of a new species Iracema horrida and on the grounds of the finding synonymies the species Paraphysa horrida, which was described by G. Schmidt in 1994 on the base of a female specimen.
A similar situation exists as well in respect to some other species. Together with that it is interesting that several tarantula species widespread in culture, which successfully multiply in captivity, are still not described.
Thereby, the systematic of tarantulas of the World constantly undergoes significant changes.
Also see Systematic news
*It is brought on the grounds of publication: Raven, R.J. (2000): Taxonomica Aranea I: Barychelidae, Theraphosidae, Nemesiidae and Dipluridae (Araneae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 45 (2): 569-575. Brisbane. ISSN 0079-8835
**Arthropoda No. 3-2000
***Rudloff, J.-P. Anmerkungen zur systematischen Stellung von Acanthopelma rufescens F.O.P. Cambridge, 1997 (Ischnocolinae: Theraphosidae: Mygalomorphae), sowie die Eintrichtung einer neuen Gattung Riechlingia gen. nov. (Mygalomorphae: Barychelidae: Trichopelmatinae). Arthropoda 9(3): 14-20
****H.-J. Peters – Tarantulas of the World Nr. 72, S. 3-11
*****Schmidt G. (2002): Eine neue Pterinochilus-Art aus Sambia (Theraphosidae: Harpactirinae). TOW 7 (71): 3-7
******Tesmoingt M.&Schmidt G. 2002, Stenotarsus scissistylus gen. et sp.n. (Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae), eine Vogelspinne aus Franzosisch Guyana. TOW. Ausgabe 76, Dezember 2002: 3-12
*******Kishida K. 1920, Note on Yamia watasei, a new spider of the family Avicularidae. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo,32: 299-307
********Rudloff, J.-P. (2003): Eine neue Brachypelma-Art aus Mexiko, Brachypelma schroederi sp.n. (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphoside: Theraphosinae). Arthropoda 11(3): 2-15.
*********Schmidt G. 2003, Das Mannchen von Brachypelma verdezi sp.n (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphoside: Theraphosinae), einer haufig mit Aphonopelma pallidum verwechselten Vogelspinnenart aus Mexiko. Tarantulas of the World 86, Oktober 2003: 4-9
**********R.Bertani&С.Silva, (2003): Notes on the genus Iracema Perez-Miles, 2000 with the first description of the male of I. horrida (Schmidt, 1994) (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Zootaxa 362: 1–8 (2003)