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Subfamily Theraphosinae (Thorell, 1870)

English

Identification keys of genera of Subfamily Theraphosinae

 

(By: Perez-Miles et al. Systematic revision and cladistic analysis of Theraphosinae (Araneae: Theraphosidae). 1996. Mygalomorph 1: 33-68)

This is a speciouse group from the New World showing high diversity in the southern region of North America, Central and South America.

Representatives of the subfamily Theraphosinae characterizes in the presence of urticating hairs of types I and/or III and/or IV. The palpal bulb has a large subtegulum, extended and with keels present. Also there're no stridulating organ between outer surface of chelicerae and the inner surface of the coxa of the palp. Both surfaces are smooth or at most with scanty hairs.

Stridulating organ between the basal segments of the palp and leg I also absent.
 

Key

Feature

Key or genera name

1

Type IV urticating hairs present

2

 

Type IV urticating hairs absent

6

2

Coxa of leg I with stridulatory setae

Grammostola

 

Coxa of leg I without stridulatory setae

3

3

Digitiform apophysis on the base of the tegulum (fig. 1)

Homoeomma

 

Palpal bulb without digitiform apophysis

4

4

Retrolateral basal nodule on metatarsus I in males (fig. 2), metatarsus I closing between the tibial apophysis. Female with spiral spermathecae (fig. 3)

Plesiopelma

 

Metatarsus I without nodule

5

5

Paraemboliс apophysis present (fig. 4)

Cyriocosmus

 

Paraemboliс apophysis absent

Euathlus

6

Labium with few cuspules (less than 15)

7

 

Labium with numerous cuspules (more than 20)

8

7

Palpal bulb with embolus subcylindrical (fig. 5), spiral, female with two separated spermathecal receptacles

Melloleitaoina

 

Palpal bulb with embolus subcylindrical, curved (fig. 6). Metatarsus I strongly curved, single spermathecal receptacles

Hapalotremus

8

Palpal bulb as in fig. 7

Euathlus

 

Palpal bulb not as fig. 7

9

9

Palpal bulb as in fig. 8

Tmesiphantes

 

Palpal bulb not as in fig. 8

10

10

Spiniform hairs on the retrolateral face of coxae. Type I urticating hairs present

11

 

Retrolateral face of coxae without such spiniform hairs

12

11

Stridulatory setae on the prolateral face of trochanter I

Citharacanthus

 

Stridulatory setae on the prolateral face of trochanter I absent

Aphonopelma

12

Palpal bulb with one keel wider than the others

13

 

Palpal bulb with subequal keels

14

13

Males without tibial apophyses, female with one fused spermathecae

Metriopelma

 

Males with two tibial apophyses and metatarsus I strongly curved

Hapalopus

14

Palpal bulb and spermathecae as in fig. 9 and 10

Cyclosternum

 

Palpal bulb and spermathecae not as in fig. 9 and 10

15

15

Embolus with bifid apex

Schizopelma

 

Embolus apex not bifid

16

16

Type I urticating hair present

17

 

Type I urticating hair absent

29

17

Only one tibial apophysis, embolus corkscrew shaped (fig. 11, 12), two subspherical spermathecae (fig. 13)

Acanthoscurria

 

Two or no tibial apophyses

18

18

Males without tibial apophyses, female with two spermathecae (fig. 14, 15)

Nhandu

 

Female with single or two spermathecal receptaculum

19

19

Female with notched spermatheca (fig. 16, 17). Males without tibial apophyses

Sericopelma

 

Males with two tibial apophyses

20

20

Tibia IV of males highly incrassate, palpal bulb and spermathecae as in fig. 18 and 19

Eupalaestrus

 

Tibia IV of male not incrassate

21

21

Palpal bulb and spermathecae as in fig. 20, 21

Vitalius

 

Palpal bulb and spermathecae not as in fig. 20 and 21

22

22

Stridulatory setae on the trochanter and coxa of leg I

Phormictopus

 

Stridulatory setae on trochanter or coxa of leg I, or absent

23

23

Stridulatory setae only on trochanter

24

 

Stridulatory setae only on coxa or absent

25

24

Carapace with spherical foveal process

Sphaerobothria

 

Carapace without spherical foveal process

Cyrtopholis

25

Palpal bulb as in fig. 22

Lasiodora

 

Palpal bulb not as in fig. 22, no stridulatory setae

26

26

Femur III incrassate, palpal bulb as in fig. 23

Megaphobema

 

Femur III not incrassate

27

27

Palpal bulb as in fig. 24

Pamphobeteus

 

Palpal bulb not as in fig. 24

28

28

Palpal bulb and spermathecae as in fig. 25 and 26

Xenesthis

 

Palpal bulb and spermathecae as in fig. 27 and 28

Brachypelma

29

Males without tibial apophyses, stridulatory setae absent

Theraphosa

 

Males with two tibial apophyses, stridulatory setae on coxa II

Pseudotheraphosa

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Acanthoscurria Aenigmarachne Aphonopelma Bonnetina Brachypelma Chromatopelma Citharacanthus Clavopelma Crassicrus Cyclosternum Cyriocosmus Cyrtopholis Euathlus Eupalaestrus Grammostola Hapalopus Hapalotremus Hemirrhagus Homoeomma Lasiodora Lasiodorides Magulla Maraca Megaphobema Melloleitaoina Metriopelma Neostenotarsus Nesipelma Nhandu Ozopactus Pamphobeteus Paraphysa Phormictopus Plesiopelma Proshapalopus Pseudhapalopus Reversopelma Schismatothele Schizopelma Sericopelma Sphaerobothria Stichoplastoris Theraphosa Thrixopelma Tmesiphantes Vitalius Xenesthis